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Lesson Plan

The ABCs of Poetry

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The ABCs of Poetry

Grades 9 – 12
Lesson Plan Type Minilesson
Estimated Time 50 minutes
Lesson Author

John S. O'Connor

John S. O'Connor

Winnetka, Illinois


National Council of Teachers of English


Student Objectives

Instruction & Activities


Student Assessment/Reflections



Students will

  • invent original metaphors by examining letters of the alphabet.

  • create a group poem as a class.

  • foster the importance of listening to others and respecting others' views.

  • consider new ways of organizing language: by topics, sounds, and so forth.

  • practice alliteration by listing favorite words with a common initial letter.

  • write original poems by themselves, following the class model.

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Instruction & Activities

  1. Begin by asking a student in class to name any letter in the alphabet. Write the letter on the board or chart paper, and ask students to forget that it’s a letter and to call out all the things the letter looks like. For example, if the letter is P, students may shout out lollipop, a whole note, a flag . . . whatever. Try to elicit at least 10 responses, and write them all down on the board or chart paper.

  2. Next, ask the students what would happen if you turned this letter upside down. Write the inverted letter on the board or chart paper, and field new responses, writing them all down—the head of a golf club, a foot in a cast, a garden spade digging, and so forth.

  3. Then turn the letter on its side, one direction at a time, fielding new responses: a bottle rocket, a bobsled, a yoga position.

  4. When the board or chart paper is filled with images, invite the students to call out the 5 most interesting words they know that begin with our initial letter: perspicacity, perspiration, penguin, pickle, popsicle, popcorn.

  5. Next, read out the words on the board or chart paper as a poem, ending with the words that students identified as interesting:

    P is a a lollipop, a whole note, a flag
    P is a foot in a cast, the head of a golf club,
    a garden spade, digging.

    P is perspiration, perspicacity, penguin, pickle, popsicle, popcorn.

  6. As an intermediate step, the teacher could also ask the class how they would read the various words which the class has generated.

  7. Ask if there certain words that go together by sound or by topic? If no suggestions are offered, share some connections of your own and explain to the class what you were thinking as you arranged the words. This process usually takes about 15 minutes in class.

  8. Invite students to write a letter poem of their own, using a different letter. Share the Model Alphabet Poems with the students.

  9. Suggest that the students include at least 20 descriptions of the letter total, including all directions. The writing of the letter poems typically takes the rest of the period.

  10. After about 15 minutes of work time, remind the students that they should end with the list of interesting words that start with the letter they chose.

  11. If desired, students can publish their letter poems using the Alphabet Organizer. If each student in the class chooses a different letter, than the poems can be printed and bound together in a class alphabet book.

  12. Finally, invite the students to share the poem that they created.

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  • One of the great features of this lesson is that it virtually guarantees everyone speaks (you may want to call on reluctant students first). The class can make a cool poem on the spot as a group, which leads to great community building.

  • This poetry idea also works well with foreign letters and characters. Other teachers have used the exercise in ESL classes. For example, some students have written a poem using the German esset (ß) and a Japanese student write a poem from a Japanese character. Here is an example which uses the Hebrew bet (ב).

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Because this activity is informal, student engagement and participation is perhaps most important. As students work on the activity, pay attention to how they work and share information with the entire class or smaller groups. Anecdotal notetaking can provide information for further assessment of students’ participation in the activity.

Optional: Using Self-Reflection questions, ask students to think about the steps they took as they worked on their poems—what they had problems with, how they worked out their problems, and how they feel about their final draft.

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