Vote for Me! Developing, Writing, and Evaluating Persuasive Speeches
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- Standards |
- Resources & Preparation |
- Instructional Plan |
- Related Resources |
To deliver an effective persuasive speech, students must formulate logical arguments and back them up with examples. In this lesson, students will study political campaign speeches to explore the characteristics of effective persuasive speechwriting and oral argument. While using an online tutorial and looking at examples, students learn what makes a strong speech. A second online tool helps them learn how to formulate a persuasive argument. Students then apply this information in two ways: by writing their own speeches and evaluating others'.
ReadWriteThink Persuasion Map: Use this interactive tool for any lesson in which students need to create a piece of persuasive writing.
From Theory to Practice
- Persuasive writing can take many forms including essays, letters to the editor, classified advertisements, and speeches.
- In political speeches, writers use precision to make the speech more easily understood.
- In a short persuasive speech, it's important to have an introduction that states the position of the speech clearly; this is followed by at least three pieces of evidence to support the position.
- Students should examine the various ways persuasion is used in everyday life before they begin writing their own persuasive pieces.
- Persuasive writing is easily incorporated into content areas such as science and social studies.
Common Core Standards
This resource has been aligned to the Common Core State Standards for states in which they have been adopted. If a state does not appear in the drop-down, CCSS alignments are forthcoming.
This lesson has been aligned to standards in the following states. If a state does not appear in the drop-down, standard alignments are not currently available for that state.
NCTE/IRA National Standards for the English Language Arts
- 4. Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.
- 5. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.
- 8. Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.
- 11. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities.
- 12. Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).
Materials and Technology
- Computers with Internet access
- LCD projector and screen
|Visit Speechwriting and read over the online tutorial. Explore other areas of the site, as you may want to use them for extensions to this lesson. Bookmark this site on your school or classroom computers.
|Print and review John F. Kennedy's Announcement of Candidacy 1/2/60. This speech is short and fits the format of the speeches students are being asked to write. Alternatively, you might select a different speech from either Miller Center - Presidential Speeches or American Rhetoric: The Power of Oratory in the United States or write your own sample speech. Practice reading the speech you will use as an example in class out loud.
|Bookmark the interactive Persuasion Map on your classroom or school computers, and make sure that it is working properly. This online graphic organizer is a prewriting exercise that enables students to map out their arguments for a persuasive essay. If you experience technical difficulties, you may need to download the newest version of the Flash plug-in, which is available for free on the Site Tools page of this website. You may want to create and print your own persuasion map (especially if you have written your own speech) to model how students will use the tool.
|Review the Persuasive Speech Checklist and the Persuasive Speech Rubric. Print out two copies of the rubric and one copy of the checklist for each student.
- Develop critical thinking skills by learning about the characteristics of an effective speech, both how it is written and how it is delivered, and then applying these criteria to sample speeches
- Formulate an argument, including the use of examples to support a thesis, using an online tool that helps them organize their ideas
- Develop skills in persuasive writing and oral delivery by writing a one-minute persuasive speech and presenting it to a small group of their peers
- Interpret and evaluate persuasive arguments using a rubric to assess their peers' speeches
Session 1: The Characteristics of a Strong Speech
|Introduce the concept of speechwriting to students. Ask them to brainstorm a time when they have heard someone give a speech (e.g., school assembly, presidential or political speeches) Talk about why people make speeches. Specifically discuss campaign speeches and their purpose (i.e., to try to convince or persuade people to vote for or support a particular candidate).
|Tell students that they are going to do two things. Pretending that they are running for president, they will write a campaign speech. They will also listen to each other's speeches and evaluate them.
|Using either individual computers, or one demonstration computer with a projection screen, go to Speechwriting. Read aloud (or play the audio for) the homepage and the "Write It" page. In addition, show students the "Tips From the Pros" page.
|Discuss with students what you have read and talk about the characteristics of an effective speech.
|Pass out the Persuasive Speech Rubric and explain that students will be using these characteristics to evaluate each other's speeches. Define the word rubric (in this case it is a chart that helps classify and evaluate information). Quickly review the five areas that they will evaluate and explain the four-point scale. You may want to go over some of the more complicated terms on the rubric, such as what is meant by expressive speech.
|Tell students that you are going to read a speech and that they will then use the rubric together to evaluate the speech. Tell them that they should take notes on the rubric while you are giving the speech because they will be turning it in at the end of the session.
|Read John F. Kennedy's Announcement of Candidacy 1/2/60 aloud (or, if you have chosen to write your own or selected another speech, read that aloud). When you are finished, go over each category on the rubric and discuss what students thought of it and what rating it should receive. Ask them to indicate their ratings on their sheets, along with a few short reasons why they selected that particular rating. Collect the rubrics at the end of the session.
Some things to consider pointing out
Session 2: Persuasive Writing
|Distribute the Persuasive Speech Checklist and briefly discuss it with students, telling them they should refer to it as they are writing their speeches to make sure they are on the right track.
|Help students access the Persuasion Map and go over instructions for using the map. If you have created a sample map, pass it out to the students and review. Have students enter their names and topics on the opening screen. Complete the first section ("Goal or Thesis") as a class. The goal or thesis is the stance that students are taking on the issue. Everyone's goal or thesis should be "To persuade others in my class to vote for me for president." Students should then brainstorm three reasons to support their stance, and come up with facts and examples to support each reason.
Tell students that "Tips from the Pros" on the Speechwriting website suggested covering only one or two major ideas, so they may fill in only one or two reasons on their maps for each piece of evidence (there is space for three reasons).
|Allow students time to complete their Persuasion Maps. You may want to have the Speechwriting site available on one computer for students to review if they need a refresher. Remind students to print their maps before exiting.
|When students complete their maps, they should use the rest of the time to start writing their speeches using their maps and the Persuasive Speech Checklist as guides.
Session 3: Effective Speech Delivery
|Students should spend the first half of the session working on their speeches. After about 25 minutes, tell them that if they have not completed their speeches, they should do so during their free time or for homework.
|Access Speechwriting. Read aloud (or play the audio) for the section entitled "Say It" and talk to students about the importance of rehearsing their speeches. Spend some time reviewing how to mark up a speech. You might want to mark up part of the speech you delivered, pass it out to the class, and then demonstrate how the marks show you how to read the speech.
|Give students time to rehearse their speeches (even if they are not quite complete) and encourage them to mark it up as described on the Speechwriting website. Depending on the needs and abilities of your class, you may want to have students practice alone or with a partner. Inform students that they will be presenting their speeches to a small group and encourage them to practice at home that evening.
Session 4 Convincing Their Classmates
|Divide the class into small groups of four to five students. If this is a new activity for them, explain the expectations-they will speak quietly, demonstrate respect for other speakers by listening carefully, and not comment until the speaker is finished. Appoint one student to be the group manager; he or she will contact the teacher if there are any problems following these procedures.
|While each group member is giving his or her speech, one other member will be assessing the speech using the Persuasive Speech Rubric. A different group member should complete the rubric for each speech. Make sure each student is clear on who will be completing the rubric for whom (you might want to prepare a list in advance). The other members of the group will be listening carefully and should be prepared to give verbal feedback.
|Allow students time to present their speeches to their small group. Give the group a few minutes to discuss each speech before moving on to the next one.
|When the speeches are complete, bring the class together to discuss them. Questions to consider include: What made a particular speech more effective than another? What did they learn? Who would they vote for from their group and why? Collect the rubrics at the end of the class.
Student Assessment / Reflections
- Observe student participation in the initial discussions about what constitutes an effective speech. Collect the Persuasive Speech Rubrics from the first session's discussion and review them to make sure students are correctly applying the criteria to the sample speech. If you observe some consistent misconceptions, address these at the beginning of Session 2.
- Review each student's Persuasion Map and speech and offer him or her feedback using the Persuasive Speech Rubric.
- Observe students both when they are practicing their speeches and while they are working in their groups. Review the completed Persuasive Speech Rubrics to determine that they understand how to apply the criteria to evaluate a persuasive speech.